Manufacturing processes, dimensional ranges and materials

Tolcap covered manufacturing processes with corresponding dimension ranges, tolerances ranges, and where applicable materials.

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Process
Group
Manufacturing ProcessDimension
Range
Tolerance
Range
Materials
CastingCentrifugal casting - all metals10-1500mm0.01-5mm
Ceramic mould casting - all metals1-1000mm0.01-5mm
Gravity die casting for aluminium and magnesium alloys1-1000mm0.01-5mm
Gravity die casting for iron and copper alloys1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Investment casting - all metals1-700mm0.01-4mm
Plaster mould casting for aluminium and magnesium alloys1-500mm0.02-2mm
Plaster mould casting for zinc and copper alloys1-500mm0.02-2mm
Pressure die casting for aluminium and magnesium alloys1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Pressure die casting for copper alloys1-500mm0.01-10mm
Pressure die casting for zinc alloys1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Sand casting for aluminium and magnesium alloys10-5000mm0.1-30mm
Sand casting for copper alloys10-5000mm0.1-30mm
Sand casting for steel and iron10-10000mm0.3-50mm
Shell moulding for aluminium and magnesium alloys10-1000mm0.1-10mm
Shell moulding for steel, iron and copper alloys10-1000mm0.1-10mm
Cold drawing and rollingCold drawing for copper and copper alloys1-100mm0.01-0.5mm
Cold drawing for low to medium carbon steels1-150mm0.005-0.5mm
Cold rolling for aluminium alloys0.1-100mm0.005-2mm
Cold rolling for copper and copper alloys0.1-100mm0.001-1mm
Cold rolling for low to medium carbon and low alloy steels0.1-100mm0.001-1mm
Cold formingCold forming and finishing - radial tolerance only1-100mm0.005-0.2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Cold heading for low to medium carbon steels - axial tolerances1-300mm0.005-0.5mm
Cold heading for low to medium carbon steels - radial tolerances1-30mm0.005-0.2mm
Impact extrusion - axial tolerances5-150mm0.05-2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Impact extrusion - radial tolerances5-150mm0.01-2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Swaging10-150mm0.01-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Elastomer and composite mouldingCompression moulding for composite materials10-3000mm0.05-10mm
Hand-spray lay-up for composite materials10-5000mm0.1-50mm
Injection moulding for elastomers1-150mm0.01-2mm
ExtrusionCold extrusion1-150mm0.005-0.2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Extrusion for elastomers1-100mm0.1-10mm
Extrusion for thermoplastics1-500mm0.01-20mm
Hot extrusion for aluminium and magnesium alloys1-300mm0.05-5mm
Hot forgingClosed die forging upto 1kg - low to medium carbon5-300mm0.1-3mm
Closed die forging 1kg to 3.2kg - low to medium carbon10-500mm0.2-5mm
Closed die forging 3.2kg to 10kg - low to medium carbon10-1000mm0.5-10mm
Closed die forging 10kg to 50kg - low to medium carbon10-1500mm0.5-10mm
Closed die forging upto 1kg - low alloy steel5-300mm0.1-3mm
Closed die forging 1kg to 3.2kg - low alloy steel10-500mm0.2-5mm
Closed die forging 3.2kg to 10kg - low alloy steel10-1000mm0.5-10mm
Closed die forging 10kg to 50kg - low alloy steel10-1500mm0.5-10mm
Precision closed die forging and stamping for copper alloys1-300mm0.01-1mm
MachiningBroaching1-150mm0.001-0.05mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Cylindrical grinding1-1000mm0.0005-0.1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Grey
Irons - Malleable
Irons - Nodular
Irons - Pearlite
Drilling1-100mm0.005-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Honing1-500mm0.0005-0.05mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Grey
Irons - Malleable
Irons - Nodular
Irons - Pearlite
Lapping1-500mm0.0005-0.05mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Grey
Irons - Malleable
Irons - Nodular
Irons - Pearlite
Milling1-1000mm0.005-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Planing and shaping10-2000mm0.01-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Reaming1-100mm0.001-0.1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Surface grinding1-1000mm0.0005-0.1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Grey
Irons - Malleable
Irons - Nodular
Irons - Pearlite
Turning and boring5-5000mm0.001-0.5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Ultra precision turning and boring1-1000mm0.0005-0.1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - Cast
Steels - Free cutting
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Irons - Grey
Non-traditional machiningChemical milling for aluminium alloys1-15mm0.005-0.2mm
Chemical milling for carbon steels1-15mm0.01-0.5mm
Chemical milling for titanium1-15mm0.01-0.5mm
Electrical discharge machining1-100mm0.001-0.2mm
Electrochemical machining1-100mm0.001-0.5mm
Electron beam machining1-100mm0.001-0.5mm
Laser beam machining1-100mm0.001-0.5mm
Photochemical blanking for carbon steels0.01-1mm0.005-0.5mm
Photochemical blanking for copper alloys0.01-1mm0.001-0.2mm
Ultrasonic machining1-100mm0.001-0.2mm
Plastic mouldingBlow moulding - thermoplastics10-500mm0.1-5mm
Injection or compression moulding ABS, EPOXY, PBTP (filled), PC, PESU1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Injection or compression moulding PETP (filled), PF, PMMA, POM (filled), PPS1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Injection or compression moulding PS, PSU, PVC-U, SAN, UP1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Injection or compression moulding CA, CP, PA, PBTP (unfilled), PP (filled)1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Injection or compression moulding PCTFE, PE, PP (unfilled)1-1000mm0.01-10mm
Injection moulding for precision engineering components (All thermoplastics)1-500mm0.01-1mm
Rotational moulding for thermoplastics100-4000mm0.2-20mm
Powder metallurgyPowder metal sintering for axial tolerances1-100mm0.01-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Malleable
Powder metal sintering for radial tolerances1-100mm0.001-0.5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Malleable
Powder metal sizing for radial tolerances1-100mm0.001-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Steels - Tool
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Irons - Malleable
Sheet metalworkingDeep drawing and ironing1-500mm0.001-1mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Fine blanking1-500mm0.001-0.5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Sheet metal bending1-1000mm0.05-5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Sheet metal cutting1-3000mm0.01-2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Sheet metal punching1-300mm0.01-0.5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Sheet metal roll forming10-1500mm0.01-2mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc
Sheet metal spinning50-5000mm0.01-5mmSteels - Alloy
Steels - High Carbon
Steels - Medium Carbon
Steels - Mild
Steels - Stainless
Non-ferrous alloys - Aluminium
Non-ferrous alloys - Copper
Non-ferrous alloys - Lead
Non-ferrous alloys - Magnesium
Non-ferrous alloys - Nickel
Non-ferrous alloys - Tin
Non-ferrous alloys - Titanium
Non-ferrous alloys - Zinc